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Предотвращение теплового удара

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Предотвращение теплового удара
Цитата
How can I prevent heat illness? When the heat index is high, stay indoors in air-conditioned areas when possible. If you must go outside, take the following precautions: Wear lightweight, light-colored, loose-fitting clothes. Protect yourself from the sun by wearing a hat or using an umbrella. Use sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or more. Drink plenty of water before starting an outdoor activity. Drink extra water all day. Drink fewer beverages that contain caffeine (such as tea, coffee and cola) or alcohol. Schedule vigorous outdoor activities for cooler times of the day--before 10 a.m. and after 6 p.m. During an outdoor activity, take frequent breaks. Drink water or other fluids every 15 to 20 minutes, even if you don't feel thirsty. If you have clear, pale urine, you are probably drinking enough fluids. If you have a chronic medical problem, ask your doctor about how to deal with the heat, about drinking extra fluids and about your medicines.
http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/healthy/firstaid/basics/088.html Ну ок, вобщем мое дело предупредить. Надеюсь никто не пострадает.
"Если вы не отзоветесь, мы напишем в Спортлото" - В. Высоцкий
Техника тут не при чем. Ты сам взял способы добычи воды из армейского справочника. Именно что дети. US ARMY FIELD MANUAL 90-3 DESERT OPERATIONS Chapter 1 - THE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS EFFECTS ON PERSONNEL
Цитата
BASIC HEAT INJURY PREVENTION The temperature of the body is regulated within very narrow limits. Too little salt causes heat cramps; too little salt and insufficient water causes heat exhaustion. Heat exhaustion will cause a general collapse of the body's cooling mechanism. This condition is heatstroke, and is potentially fatal. To avoid these illnesses, troops should maintain their physical fitness by eating adequately, drinking sufficient water, and consuming adequate salt. If soldiers/marines expend more calories than they take in, they will be more prone to heat illnesses. Since troops may lose their desire for food in hot climates, they must be encouraged to eat, with the heavier meal of the day scheduled during the cooler hours. It is necessary to recognize heat stress symptoms quickly. When suffering from heatstroke, the most dangerous condition, there is a tendency for a soldier/marine to creep away from his comrades and attempt to hide in a shady and secluded spot; if not found and treated, he will die. When shade is required during the day, it can best be provided by tarpaulins or camouflage nets, preferably doubled to allow air circulation between layers and dampened with any surplus water. Approximately 75 percent of the human body is fluid. All chemical activities in the body occur in a water solution, which assists in the removal of toxic body wastes and plays a vital part in the maintenance of an even body temperature. A loss of 2 quarts of body fluid (2.5 percent of body weight) decreases efficiency by 25 percent and a loss of fluid equal to 15 percent of body weight is usually fatal. The following are some considerations when operating in a desert environment: Consider water a tactical weapon. Reduce heat injury by forcing water consumption. Soldiers/marines in armored vehicles, MOPP gear, and in body armor need to increase their water intake. When possible, drink Cool (50-55 degrees Fahrenheit) water. Drink one quart of water in the morning, at each meal, and before strenuous work. In hot climates drink at least one quart of water each hour. At higher temperatures hourly water requirements increase to over two quarts. Take frequent drinks since they are more often effective than drinking the same amount all at once. Larger soldiers/marines need more water. Replace salt loss through eating meals. When possible, work loads and/or duration of physical activity should be less during the first days of exposure to heat, and then should gradually be increased to follow acclimatization. Modify activities when conditions that increase the risk of heat injury (fatigue/loss of sleep, previous heat exhaustion, taking medication) are present. Take frequent rest periods in the shade, if possible. Lower the work rate and work loads as the heat condition increases. Perform heavy work in the cooler hours of the day such as early morning or late evening, if possible. A description of the symptoms and treatment for heat illnesses follows: Heat cramps. - Symptoms: Muscle cramps of arms, legs, and/or stomach. Heavy sweating (wet skin) and extreme thirst. - First aid: Move soldier/marine to a shady area and loosen clothing. Slowly give large amounts of cool water. Watch the soldier/marine and continue to give him water, if he accepts it. Get medical help if cramps continue. Heat exhaustion. - Symptoms: Heavy sweating with pale, moist, cool skin; headache, weakness, dizziness, and/or loss of appetite; heat cramps, nausea (with or without vomiting), rapid breathing, confusion, and tingling of the hands and/or feet. - First aid: Move the soldier/marine to a cool, shady area and loosen/remove clothing. Pour water on the soldier/marine and fan him to increase the cooling effect. Have the soldier/ marine slowly drink at least one full canteen of water. Elevate the soldier's/marine's legs. Get medical help if symptoms continue; watch the soldier/marine until the symptoms are gone or medical aid arrives. Heatstroke. - Symptoms: Sweating stops (red, flushed, hot dry skin). - First aid: Evacuate to a medical facility immediately. Move the soldier/marine to a cool, shady area and loosen or remove clothing if the situation permits. Start cooling him immediately. Immerse him in water and fan him. Massage his extremities and skin and elevate his legs. If conscious, have the soldier/marine slowly drink one full canteen of water.
Цитата
Water is the key to your health and survival. Drink before you become thirsty and drink often, When you become thirsty you will be about a "quart and a half low". Carry as much water as possible when away from approved sources of drinking water. Man can live longer without food than without water. Drink before you work; carry water in your belly, do not "save" it in your canteen. Learn to drink a quart or more of water at one time and drink frequently to replace sweat losses. Ensure troops have at least one canteen of water in reserve, and know where and when water resupply will be available. Carbohydrate/electrolyte beverages (e.g., Gatorade) are not required, and if used, should not be the only source of water. They are too concentrated to be used alone. Many athletes prefer to dilute these 1:1 with water. Gaseous drinks, sodas, beer, and milk are not good substitutes for water because of their dehydrating effects. If urine is more colored than diluted lemonade, or the last urination cannot be remembered, there is probably insufficient water intake. Collect urine samples in field expedient containers and spot check the color as a guide to ensuring proper hydration. Very dark urine warns of dehydration. Soldiers/marines should observe their own urine, and use the buddy system to watch for signs of dehydration in others. Diseases, especially diarrheal diseases, will complicate and often prevent maintenance of proper hydration. Salt, in correct proportions, is vital to the human body; however, the more a man sweats, the more salt he loses. The issue ration has enough salt for a soldier/marine drinking up to 4 quarts of water per day. Unacclimatized troops need additional salt during their first few days of exposure and all soldiers/marines need additional salt when sweating heavily. If the water demand to balance sweat loss rises, extra salt must be taken under medical direction. Salt, in excess of body requirements, may cause increased thirst and a feeling of sickness, and can be dangerous. Water must be tested before adding salt as some sources are already saline, especially those close to the sea.
"Если вы не отзоветесь, мы напишем в Спортлото" - В. Высоцкий
Цитата
Алексей Духович: Ну ок, вобщем мое дело предупредить. Надеюсь никто не пострадает.
Алексей, не думаю, что кто-то пострадает, потому что у каждого будет - инструктор, который будет действовать по своему усмотрению :)
Цитата
Алексей Духович: US ARMY FIELD MANUAL 90-3 DESERT OPERATIONS Chapter 1 - THE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS EFFECTS ON PERSONNEL
Чёй то такое :o ,а почему не по китайски :)
Верую ибо абсурдно.
Цитата
Сергей Васильевич: ЦитатаАлексей Духович: US ARMY FIELD MANUAL 90-3 DESERT OPERATIONS Chapter 1 - THE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS EFFECTS ON PERSONNEL Чёй то такое ,а почему не по китайски
Сергей Васильевич, полно Вам, уже все выяснили, статью - опубликовали :)
Цитата
Герман Качуринер: Алексей, не думаю, что кто-то пострадает, потому что у каждого будет - инструктор, который будет действовать по своему усмотрению С улыбкой
Я смотрю долго держится эта тема в разделе, поэтому поясню насчёт моего инструктора (на которого Герман тут намекает): как бы он поступил в ситуации, которую обсуждали по тепловому удару в КЮМе. 1)мой инструктор начал бы восхождение в 2 часа ночи; в жару вести людей в горы :OZ: - глупо! (вполне совпадает с тем, что здесь написано в "англоязычной информации" - см. пункт про schedule vigorous activity) 2) за первые десять часов похода мы с моим инструктором дошли бы до линии, где заканчивается вегетация, или выше её (но никак не ниже!); отсюда (высота - примерно три тысячи)уже становится прохладно и проблема теплового удара отпадает сама собой; 3) воду в горах экономить не нужно, в отличие от ситуации на море. Бывает, что трудно найти ручей, но если ты не обезвожен (см. пукнт: drink before you become thirsty)и не совсем чайник, то ручей найдёшь. Когда же ледник начинается, то вода там повсюду в виде снега. Так что нет причины беречь взятые с собой запасы воды в первый день. Что на море - другая ситуация (запасы воды ограничены) - это и так понятно. Зато в отличие от пустыни, в море от теплового удара можно хоть в волне освежиться. |und3| Но сравнивать, как выжить в пустыне, на море и в горах, по-моему, большой пользы не приносит, так как условия - слишком разные.
From "Popular Mechanics", 1998 issue:
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